Како је настала Кока-кола: Трагична судбина творца најпопуларнијег безалкохолног пића на свету
2017. у 22:47
Џон Пембертон, творац вероватно најпознатијег бренда на свету, борио се са зависношћу већи део свог живота. У неком тренутку,
ова зависност довела је до открића Кока-коле.
Менаџер маркетинга компаније „Кока-кола“, Венди Кларк, једном приликом написала је за човека који је открио ово пиће да је он био „фармацеут који је желео да направи еликсир који ће људе освежити, подићи и усрећити“. Иако је ова намера
крајње позитивна, мотивација иза овог открића има нешто другачију позадину.
Прича о настанку овог пића почиње крајем 19. века и прати др Џона Стита Пембертона, робовласника који се бавио
медицином и борио се на страни Југа у Америчком грађанском рату.
Пре него што се Пембертон прикључио Џорџијанском трећем коњичком батаљону, за живот је зарађивао као хемичар и фармацеут. Завршио је медицински факултет у Макону у Џорџији и био је овлашћени
практикант Томсонијанске медицине која се ослањала на принципе ботанике и траварства у циљу чишћења тела од штетних токсина.
Као и данас, барем на Западу, многи су посматрали ову врсту медицине са неповерењем и сумњом. Међутим, Пембертон је наставио
са својом праксом све док није зарадио диплому фармацеута пре него што је грађански рат избио 1861. године.
У бици у Колумбусу у априлу 1865. године, задобио је повреду сабљом на грудима од које умало није умро. Иако је овај рат за њега био готов, други
је тек започео. Да би остао жив, неговатељи су му давали морфин да би ублажили болове што је резултирало тиме да постане зависник.
Ослонивши се на знање које је стекао претходних година, Џон се дао у потрагу за леком за своју зависност. Почео је да
експериментише са разним травама и биљкама, међу којима и са листом коке који, као што је познато, представља сировину која се користи за производњу кокаина.
Памбертон је помешао листове коке, вино и орахе биљке кола и тако произвео своје прво пиће
које је назвао „Памбертонова кола од француског вина“. Напитак који је користио за ублажавање опијумске зависности, рекламиран као антидепресант, аналгетик и афродизијак одмах је постигао велики успех.
Двадесет година након настанка, округ
Атланта забранио је производњу, продају и куповину алкохола. Да би спасио свој производ од прохибиције која је била на помолу, Пембертон је 1886. године уклонио алкохол из састојака и вино заменио шећерним сирупом.
У сарадњи са својим дугогодишњим пријатељем
Вилисом Е. Венаблом променио је назив у Кока-кола и намеравали су да он буде коришћен у медицинске сврхе, али су случајно додали газирану воду у мешавину. Уместо да одбаце ту идеју, они су ову посластицу на тржишту представили као освежавајући безалкохолни
Иако је Кола постигла светски успех, њен творац није прошао тако славно. Пошто није постојао лек за зависност, замена морфина за кокаин донела му је само привремено одлагање незавидног стања.
Џон Пембертон и једна од првих реклама за Кока-колу;
Поново је користио морфин што га је коштало и целокупне уштеђевине
и здравља. Поред тога, промена медицинског еликсира у безалкохолно пиће није првобитно прошла тако добро што је приморало Пембертона да прода права на свој изум разним пословним партнерима само да би саставио крај са крајем.
Џон Пембертон умро је као
зависник и без долара у џепу 1888. године од последица стомачног тумора. Своје акције у компанији Кока-кола, једино што му је остало, наследио је његов син Чарлс. Он је такође био опијумски зависник и умро је само шест година после свог оца и није дочекао
да види огромну популарност и успех који је Кока-кола стекла широм света само неколико године касније.
The opioid epidemic may have cost U.S. state and federal governments up to $37.8 billion in lost tax revenue
due to opioid-related employment loss, according to Penn State researchers.
the researchers found that Pennsylvania was one of the states with the most lost revenue, with approximately $638.2 million lost to income and sales tax. The study looked at data between 2000 and 2016.
Joel Segel, assistant professor of Health
Policy and Administration, said that the results — recently published in the journal Medical Care — could help governments that are hoping to make up for lost revenue.
“This is a cost that was maybe not thought about as explicitly
before, and a cost that governments could potentially try to recoup,” Segel said. “Instead of focusing on the cost of treating people with opioid use disorder, you could think about it in terms of a potential benefit to getting people healthy,
back on their feet, and back in the workforce.”
Previous research estimated that in 2016 there were nearly 2.1 million Americans with an opioid use disorder, and approximately 64,000 deaths were the result of an opioid overdose. According to the
National Institute on Drug Abuse, there were 2,235 opioid-related overdose deaths in Pennsylvania alone.
Segel said that while previous studies have looked at the cost of the opioid epidemic in terms of substance abuse treatment and other medical costs, he and the other researchers were interested in exploring other costs that
may not have been captured before.
“We wanted to take a systematic approach to how we could think about some of the tax revenue that is lost if someone is unable to work due to opioid use,” Segel said. “This could be an important consideration
for either state or federal budgets.”
The researchers used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, as well as information from a previous study that estimated declines in the labor force due to the opioid epidemic. They used the
TAXSIM calculator from the National Bureau of Economic Research to estimate losses in tax revenue.
the data, the researchers found that from 2000 to 2016, there was an estimated decline of 1.6 million participants in the labor force, with about 68,000 of those in Pennsylvania. There were about 180,000 overdose deaths, with approximately 6,100 occurring
Additionally, the researchers estimated losses of $11.8 billion to state governments and $26 billion to the federal government in tax revenue due to reductions in the labor force. For state governments, this included lost sales tax
and income tax revenue. Losses to the federal government were entirely due to lost income tax revenue.
Segel said the results help show the value of treating people with opioid use disorder, and should be considered when treatment programs are being
considered and evaluated.
“The state of Pennsylvania has been developing some innovative programs, and our results are something to consider as these programs are being considered for implementation,” Segel said. “Not only are treatment
programs beneficial to the individual and to society, but if you’re thinking about the total cost of these treatment programs, future earnings from tax revenue could help offset a piece of that.”
TOP DOJ OFFICIAL REPORTEDLY HELPED KEEP OPIOID EXECUTIVES FROM PRISON. SHE’S SINCE DEFENDED PHARMA AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT
8:32 PM 01/20/2019 | INVESTIGATIVE GROUP
Barton | Senior Editor
The head of the Justice Department’s criminal division during the George W. Bush administration reportedly opposed pursuing felony charges against pharmaceutical
company executives for downplaying OxyContin’s dangers.
Top DOJ officials similarly rejected a prosecutor’s recommendation to file felony charges after they met with executives from Purdue Pharma and
their defense team, according to The New York Times.
Members of the Sackler family, who own Purdue Pharma, sought to mislead the public about abuse surrounding OxyContin, a lawsuit alleges, citing company emails and other documents.
The head of the Justice Department’s criminal division under President George W. Bush reportedly opposed levying felony charges against executives of a pharmaceutical company that’s widely blamed for helping start the opioid
She has since joined a private law firm and has successfully defended pharmaceutical companies against government investigations.
A federal prosecutor recommended the felony indictments, which could have resulted in jail time if convictions
were secured, but the DOJ officials rejected
the notion after meeting with the Purdue Pharma executives and their defense team, according to The New York Times. It’s unclear if the criminal division chief attended that meeting.
Over 12 years later, it’s still unknown
which senior officials attended that meeting, who rejected the indictment recommendations, and why they were rejected. Local and state governments have since mounted hundred of lawsuits against Purdue alleging the company downplayed the dangers of its blockbuster
The DOJ declined to comment on this story.
Purdue representatives lobbied top DOJ officials on multiple occasions during
the Bush administration, according to news reports and congressional testimony. Future FBI Director James Comey was involved in one instance, and Rudy Giuliani, who now serves as President Donald Trump’s attorney, was tied to another.
prosecutor who recommended felony indictments against Purdue executives found he was recommended for termination after a third instance that occurred hours before Purdue accepted a plea deal that was offered in lieu of felony charges.
Opiods in pill, powder and syringe on chalkboard with rolled twenty dollar bills. (Shutterstock/ karenfoleyphotography)
As part of the plea deal, Purdue and three executives conceded they
downplayed OxyContin’s addictiveness and collectively paid a historic $635 million in fines in 2007. No one saw jail time.
Meanwhile, more than 200,000 people have died from overdoses involving prescription opioids since OxyContin was launched
in 1996, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Massachusetts was one of the states to file a lawsuit against Purdue in 2018, but it uniquely named eight members of the
Sackler family. A recent complaint cites documents indicating the Sacklers headed a campaign to deceive doctors about the dangers of OxyContin and passed blame of negative press onto addicts.
“The launch of OxyContin tablets will be followed by
a blizzard of prescriptions that will bury the competition,” Richard Sackler, the son of a Purdue founder and the company’s president from 1999 to 2003, said while celebrating the drug’s entrance to the market, according to a document cited
in the complaint. “The prescription blizzard will be so deep, dense, and white.”
Bush’s Justice Department Rejected Felony Charges After A Four-Year Investigation
Then-U.S. Attorney John Brownlee concluded a four-year
investigation and recommended indicting the three Purdue executives on felony charges, including conspiracy to defraud the government, in September 2006, the Times reported in May 2018.
But top DOJ officials didn’t support his recommendation
after meeting with
Purdue executives and their defense team, according to Times reporter Barry Meier.
One defense lawyer for Purdue was Mary Jo White, a former federal prosecutor, and an adviser to the company’s legal team was former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani,
who was also once a U.S. attorney.
The head of DOJ’s criminal division at the time, Alice Fisher, was one of the officials who didn’t support Brownlee’s recommendation, according to the Times. She’s now a partner at the law firm
Latham & Watkins.
page says she recently represented “[g]lobal pharmaceutical companies in [Securities and Exchange Commission] and DOJ [Foreign Corrupt Practices Act] investigations resulting in settlement resolutions and declinations of prosecutions.”
It also says she represented “Several global manufacturing companies about maintaining FCPA compliance and obtaining two declinations of prosecution.”
Fisher did not respond to multiple requests for comment.
Brownlee publicly supported
the decision not to prosecute the Purdue executives, but, according to Meier, he was privately upset. Brownlee did not respond to The Daily Caller News Foundation’s request for comment, and he’s previously declined to comment to other publications.
Top DOJ Officials Questioned Purdue Probes After Hearing From Company Representatives
There were additional occasions when top DOJ officials scrutinized Brownlee’s investigation after Purdue representatives contacted them.
After speaking with the company’s defense attorneys in 2005, then-Deputy Attorney General James Comeyasked Brownlee why he was pursing Purdue, Brownlee said during a 2007 congressional hearing.
Brownlee, who was the federal prosecutor for the western district of Virginia, drove to Washington to explain the situation to Comey, who ultimately gave Brownlee the go-ahead to continue.
Additionally, Brownlee’s name appeared on a list of U.S.
prosecutors recommended for termination soon after he ignored a top DOJ aide’s request to delay the plea deal.
Hours before the plea deal was set to expire in October 2006, Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty’s chief of staff, Michael Elston,
called Brownlee and asked him to extend Purdue’s deadline, the U.S. attorney testified.
“He told me he received a phone call from the defense lawyers about the case and that that the counsel had once again said that we were moving too quickly,
that we had needed more time,” Brownlee said.
“Through his questions of me, I sensed that he was inquiring almost on their behalf,” he continued, noting Elston said he wasn’t calling at McNulty’s request.
Oxycodone is the generic name for a range of opoid pain killing tablets. Prescription bottle for Oxycodone tablets and pills
on metal table for opioid epidemic illustration. (Shutterstock/Steve Heap)
Elston’s lawyer later said McNulty, who had replaced Comey, had asked Elston to
call Brownlee, according to The Washington Post.
Elston told TheDCNF on Friday he called Brownlee on behalf of McNulty after the deputy attorney general noticed the deadline for the plea agreement was unusually tight. Elston said he was asking the prosecutor
for information and not to tell Brownlee to give Purdue more time.
McNulty did not respond to a request for comment.
Regardless, Brownlee stuck with the original deadline and Purdue agreed to it hours later, Brownlee testified.
later, Brownlee’s name was included on a list Elston compiled of prosecutors recommended for termination, though he ultimately was not fired, the Post reported in 2007.
Elston told TheDCNF he did not recall any connection between Brownlee
being included on the list and the Purdue case.
Also during the course of the government’s investigation into Purdue, Giuliani met with Asa Hutchinson in 2005, who was then the Drug Enforcement Administration’s chief, Vanity Fair reported
in 2007. The meeting came after the DEA found OxyContin could be responsible for 464 deaths over a two-year period.
Following his meeting with Giuliani, Hutchinson began asking DEA officials why they were still looking into Purdue.
is now the governor of Arkansas. He did not return a request for comment.
Legal Battles Against Purdue And The Sacklers Intensify
Deaths related to opioids have skyrocketed since the 2007 plea agreement, and the Sackler family,
Purdue’s owners, largely kept its name separate from the epidemic, until recently.
TheDCNF began its “American
Cartel” series in 2017, which tied the Sackler name to Purdue and investigated the family’s charitable givings. The Sacklers, until then, were known for their philanthropy, with famous institutions like New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art naming
entire sections after the family.
Federal prosecutors discovered that Purdue Pharma knew OxyContin was being abused soon after the drug’s 1996 launch, a confidential DOJ report shows, the Times
reported in May 2018. The report also found members of the Sackler family were aware that OxyContin and its morphine-based predecessor were being abused.
And a Tuesday court
filing alleged that the Sacklers knew that Purdue knew OxyContin was being illegally dealt and abused, but failed to report it to authorities.
“This is not too bad,” Richard Sackler said in 2001 while serving as Purdue’s
president and after a federal prosecutor reported that there were 59 deaths involving OxyContin in just one state, according to a document cited in the complaint. “It could have been far worse.”
Purdue, at the direction of the Sacklers,
pushed for doctors to prescribe higher doses of OxyContin and for longer periods, resulting in massive profits for the company and the family, the lawsuit claims.
The Massachusetts complaint “irresponsibly and counterproductively casts every prescription
of OxyContin as dangerous and illegitimate,” Purdue spokesman Bob Josephson said in a statement, calling the allegations “sensational” and “misleading.”
He accused the state of trying to “vilify” the company.
Josephson did not comment on Purdue’s communications with the DOJ.
He also said the Food and Drug Administration has ruled OxyContin continues to be “safe and effective for their intended use” and that the government determined
in 2013 Purdue had fulfilled its obligations related to the marketing of its medications.
“The complaint is littered with biased and inaccurate characterizations,” Josephson said.
The only known instance where a Sackler was deposed
was sealed as part of a $24 million settlement with Kentucky in December 2015.
Purdue recently lost an appeal to keep Richard Sackler’s deposition secret, but the company is continuing to contest the ruling. The testimony remains sealed while
legal battles persist.
Content created by The Daily Caller News Foundation is available without charge to any eligible news publisher that can provide a large audience. For licensing opportunities of our original content, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
The head of the Justice Department’s criminal division under President George W. Bush
reportedly opposed levying felony charges against executives of a pharmaceutical company that’s widely blamed for helping start the opioid epidemic.
She has since joined a private law firm and has successfully defended pharmaceutical companies
against government investigations.
A federal prosecutor recommended the felony indictments, which could have resulted in jail time if convictions were secured, but the DOJ officials rejected the notion after
meeting with the Purdue Pharma executives and their defense team, according to The New York Times. It’s unclear if the criminal division chief attended that meeting.
Over 12 years later, it’s still unknown which senior officials attended that meeting, who rejected the indictment recommendations, and why they were rejected. Local and state governments have since mounted hundred of lawsuits against Purdue alleging
the company downplayed the dangers of its blockbuster opioid, OxyContin.
The DOJ declined to comment on this story.
Purdue representatives lobbied top DOJ officials on multiple occasions during the Bush administration, according to news reports
and congressional testimony. Future FBI Director James Comey was involved in one instance, and Rudy Giuliani, who now serves as President Donald Trump’s attorney, was tied to another.
The prosecutor who recommended felony indictments against
Purdue executives found he was recommended for termination after a third instance that occurred hours before Purdue accepted a plea deal that was offered in lieu of felony charges.
How the CIA Killed Tupac, Cobain, Lennon, Hendrix & Other Activists with John Potash; 43:26 min. ; Ima mogucnost loseg Google prevoda!
Published on Jul 10, 2015 The CIA’s murderous targeting of Tupac Shakur, Kurt Cobain, John Lennon, Jimi Hendrix, the Black Panthers and other leftist political activists is explored in this eye-opening interview with Drugs as Weapons Against Us author John Potash. We hear about the role that Timothy Leary and the Grateful Dead played in the MKUltra Acid Tests, how LSD was used to derail the anti-war movement in the 1960, and more in this uncensored Buzzsaw interview, hosted by Sean Stone.
GUEST BIO: John Potash did his graduate studies at Columbia University where he concentrated in community organizing. He was founding publisher/editor of Social Justice Action Quarterly a national social work school newspaper that lasted four years and won four honors in the Campus Alternative Journalism Awards. He also received a certification in acupuncture drug treatment at Mutulu Shakur s former clinic, Lincoln Detox, in the Bronx. While mostly working as an addictions counselor, he has published articles (Z, Covert Action, Baltimore Chronicle), poems and short stories.
EPISODE BREAKDOWN: 00:00 Welcome to Buzzsaw. 00:40 Introducing John Potash. 01:20 What does it mean to weaponize drugs? 07:50 How was LSD used to derail the anti-war movement? 13:50 Timothy Leary, MKUltra Acid Tests, and the Grateful Dead 21:20 CIA using heroin to target Kurt Cobain and Courtney Love. 29:50 Steve Jobs, and the effect acid has on creativity. 33:10 Brian Jones and the changing effect of political activism in art. 38:20 Should drugs be decriminalized? 41:40 Thanks and goodbye. Category News & Politics License Standard YouTube License
Dosije Heroin, Slavko Jovanovic (49 min.) – Ispovest jednog Heroinomana,
LSD korisnika, Hasis / Marihuane pusaca, supruga, i oca dvoje dece. Prica, kako se skinuo sa ovisnosti bez abstinencijalnih simptoma, posle samo jedne iskrene molitve, u krizi, kada mu je zivot bio u pitanju, i osecao da ce umreti. Ovaj slucaj nije redak,
jer isti nacin, ista situacija se desava sirom sveta, i iskrena molitva Isusu Hristu spasava i izlecuje bez “withdrawal” simptoma. Hvala Slavku na iskrenosti i njegovom novom pozivu da se stavi u stalno svedocenje ka izlecenju, onima koji su jos
zivi, i imaju sansu da se izlece, i ostave poguban zivot Narkomanije iza sebe. Preslusao sam, i u totalnoj sam saglasnosti sa Slavkovom svedocenju, dr. Vladimir Sekulic, iz licne prakse, Psihijatar u penziji. www.traganja.com
- Uvod: Ateista/Darvinista, iz komunisticke porodice/ vremena, kako je uz umetnost i kasnije uz muziku, 22 godine gradio
karijeru “Narkomana”, posle alkohola, prvo rekreativno koristio psihoaktivne substance, a kasnije teska ovisnost do 24 puta dnevno u raznim kombinacijama, 24/7 svakodnevno. Da je dogurao do “constant daily high”, pa onesvescivanja,
gubitak 22kg. telesne tezine, susretanju sa smrcu i misleci da ce uskoro mozda i umreti,. Kako je obecavao clanovima porodice po 5000-10000 puta da ce prestati posle “ove poslednje kesice”, ali nije imao snage da sam to uradi……..Imao
je i govorne hallucinacije, gde je dozivljavao istovremeno da komunicira svesno i simultano sa sobstvenim “Ja” na 4 kanala u glavi.
- “mi narkomani, mislimo da smo frajeri, specijalni,
posebni umetnici, iznad prosecnih ljudi, i da znamo sta radimo”, “mi narkomani imamo problem sa kontaktom sa Bogom”
- Od 25 drugova korisnika psihoaktivnih substance, samo
nas cetvorica smo jos zivi, ostali su umrli ili izvrsili samoubistvo”
Bio je narko diler, a danas se bori da mlade odvrati od droge - Iza rešetaka, epizoda 1
PRVA Published on Apr 22, 2018 U prvoj epizodi emisije “Iza rešetaka” pogledajte ekskluzivnu ispovest mladića iz Beograda koji je u početku kupovao drogu u Nemačkoj, a zatim počeo da diluje i ubrzo postao jedan od najvećih narko-dilera u tom delu Nemačke.
Posle nekoliko meseci inspektori nemačke policije su ga uhapsili i smestili u zatvor specijalno izgrađen za teroriste.
Kroz njegovu dramatičnu priču videćete kako se on danas bori da mladi ne krenu njegovim putem, kako ne bi doživeli torturu kroz koju on prolazi.
IZLAZAK IZ PAKLA DROGE: Jedva sam preživio
Dnevnick Portal Published on Dec 11, 2018 Marija Jelaču droga je zamalo ubila. Izlazak iz pakla droge nije bio jednostavan, ali je uspio. -NIKAD HEROIN NE UZIMAJTE NI DA PROBATE U ŠALI.
Prvo čovek uzima drogu Zatim Droga uzima Drogu Na kraju Droga uzima čoveka
Život je... Na ivici - Ispovjest heroinskog zavisnika; 25:24 min.
RTRS vijesti Published on Nov 13, 2015 Dokumentarni film RTRS. http://goo.gl/mfXy55
Date Rape sa sedativom ( GHB) i overdose
Exclusive: Police warn of the deadly risk of taking GHB 7,199 views•May 29, 2020; Sky News Police have warned of the deadly risk of taking GHB - Gama Hydroxy Buturate after a rise in reported crimes involving the drug which was used by Britain's worst ever rapist Reynhard Sinaga to target his victims.
And despite lockdown measures to tackle coronavirus, a senior officer told Sky News that the "chemsex" drug is still coming into the country