Dr. Li believes the answer to cancer is to prevent angiogenesis, which can effectively starve
any microscopic cancerous growths, preventing them from growing and becoming dangerous.
But how do you prevent angiogenesis, aside from using a drug?
As it turns out, "mother nature has laced a large number of foods, beverages and herbs with
naturally occurring inhibitors of angiogenesis," says Li.
So by consuming these anti-angiogenetic foods you can naturally boost your body's defense system and prevent blood vessels from forming and feeding the microscopic tumors that exist in your body
at any given time.
As shown on a graph in the video, diet accounts for at least 30-35 percent of all environmentally caused cancers.
So, "eating to starve cancer" could have a dramatic impact on cancer rates across the world.
to Li, resveratrol from red grapes, for example, have been shown to inhibit abnormal angiogenesis by 60 percent. Even more potent is the ellagic acid found in strawberries.
Logically, different foods contain different
potencies of anti-angiogenetic compounds. But interestingly, when researchers evaluated a combination of two of the LEAST potent teas, for example, they discovered that this combination tea had greater potency than any given tea by itself.
Li states, which should come as no surprise to those of you who are well-versed in holistic nutrition.
Synergy is indeed what makes fresh, whole foods so potently nutritious! The sum is far greater than the individual parts, and this is why it's far
more important to focus on eating a diet of whole, organic foods, rather than obsessing about individual nutrients.
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In the 1930's, an interesting natural cancer treatment was proposed as a simple, effective answer to cancer – almost any cancer. This treatment approach is not well known because it is considered alternative or experimental -
or even dangerous[i] - by the medical and scientific community and hence has been referenced primarily in obscure publications outside the
This treatment approach is called alkaline therapy or pH therapy, and is based in part on observations of cultures without significant incidence of cancer[ii] and
in part on scientific observations of and experimentation with cellular metabolism.[iii]
The principles of pH therapy are very simple.
The metabolism of cancer cells has a very narrow pH tolerance for cellular proliferation (mitosis), which is between 6.5 and 7.5. As such, if you can interfere with cancer cell metabolism by either lowering or raising the internal cancer cell pH, you
can theoretically stop cancer progression.[iv]
While lowering cancer cell pH (increasing acidity) is effective against cancer
cell mitosis in the lab, increasing acid levels in the live body of a cancer patient puts stress on normal cells and causes a lot of pain. So the proposed alkaline therapy for people is a "high pH therapy" and has been developed to normalize the intracellular
pH of the cancer patient's body through elimination of latent acidosis, while increasing the pH of cancer cells to a range above 7.5. According to published research, it is at that pH they revert to a normal cellular apoptosis cycle (programed cell death).[v]
Ideally, this approach begins with an alkaline diet. There is general agreement amongst natural healers and medical professionals
alike, that changing a cancer patient's diet is extremely helpful when someone is confronted with a cancer diagnosis. In a previous article, I outlined the six steps that every cancer patient should take to provide the best chance to heal from and prevent
future recurrences of cancer using alkaline diet principles.[vi]
The alkaline diet, which is primarily plant-based and avoids sugar, dairy,
wheat and other high-gluten grains as well as an excess consumption of fruits, while emphasizing fresh vegetables and vegetable juices along with cruciferous vegetables and greens, changes the body's intracellular pH to come close to the ideal blood pH of
7.3/7.41 - a key metabolic accomplishment on the path to longevity whether you have cancer or not! An alkaline diet based on vegetables and fruits creates a less-than-optimal environment for cancer proliferation, while at the same time strengthens
the immune function and supports healthy cells in the body through improved nutrition.
The second step is to use some nutritional mechanism to move the internal cancer cell pH from the optimal mitosis range of pH 6.5 to 7.5, to above 8, which shortens
the life of the cancer cell. As described by its proponents, alkaline therapy neutralizes the acid waste of the cancer which causes so much pain, interferes with the anaerobic fermentation of glucose that starts the self-feeding acidic cancer wasting
cycle called cachexia and in time, can induce remission. If this theory of alkaline therapy holds true, it should be possible to address cancer without chemotherapy,
radiation or surgery and use alkaline therapy as a primary cancer treatment.
This bold statement comes from a somewhat abstruse body of research. In the 1880's, Louis Pasteur published his work on cellular aerobic respiration and glycolysis.
In 1931, Otto Warburg won the Nobel Prize for his work on the metabolism of tumors and the respiration of cells, which was later summarized in his 1956 paper, On the Origin of Cancer Cells. His work on cancer expanded upon Pasteur's findings
and described respiratory insufficiency and a cellular metabolism of glucose fermentation as the primary trigger for cancer progression[vii].
Warburg's conclusions on cancer were much discussed in scientific circles, as they are academically elegant, but were not accepted by most members of the scientific community engaged in cancer research. Most cancer researchers in the late 1950's believed
that the anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells and their accompanying output of lactic acid was a side effect or an adjunct effect of cancer, not a cause. Cancer research since the 1960's has focused primarily on genetic aberrations as causative for cancer,
and has ignored the body of research on cancer pH and its implications for therapeutic approaches.[viii]
Warburg's work was a catalyst
for yet another research effort on the nature of cancer cells, beginning in the 1930's. A. Keith Brewer, PhD (physicist) performed experiments on the relationship between energized, oxygenated cell membrane and elemental uptake, vs. cellular membranes
in an unenergized state such as cancer cells exhibit. He wrote a number of papers discussing the cellular mechanisms of cancer cells and the changes in metabolism induced or indicated by the lack of or presence of oxygen in combination with other elements,
particularly potassium and calcium. He noted that cancer cells share one characteristic no matter what type of cancer: they have lost their pH control mechanism.
Brewer's summary conclusion regarding cancer was that by changing the
pH of cancer cells to alkaline (above 7.5), they will cease to function as they need an acidic, anaerobic environment to thrive. In other words, he proposed that cancer cells will die if they can be pushed into an alkaline, oxygenated state.[ix]
Brewer's work cites areas in the world where cancer incidents are very low. These areas contain concentrations of alkalizing minerals in
the soil and water, which are greater than in other parts of the world. For example, the Hunza of northern Pakistan and the Hopi Indians of the American West share both similar soil and water conditions and diet. The alkaline elemental minerals
of cesium chloride, germanium and rubidium are heavily present in the soil and water. Ingestion of these elements is correspondingly high. These peoples also live in similar high, dry climates and grow apricot orchards, traditionally eating the
fresh or dried fruit and the seeds each day.
It should be noted that apricot seeds are the source of the controversial cancer treatment Laetrile or B-17/Amygdalin.[x]Apricot seeds contain trace amounts of cyanide, which has long been identified as a potential chemotherapeutic agent against cancer proliferation.[xi] Other similarities in the diet include a low consumption of dairy products, meat and wheat, as these foodstuffs are difficult
to farm in high, arid climates and a correspondingly greater consumption of millet, buckwheat, nuts, dried fruits and berries in their traditional diets, all of which contain a similar enhanced (though sill minute) concentration of cyanide.
all very interesting, but what does it really mean for cancer patients who wish to avoid the pain of cancer and the typical course of treatment using surgery, chemotherapy and radiation? What are the conditions that will force cancer cells to change
Conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as Cytoxan usually cause more damage to normal cells than to cancer cells, because cancer cells have a very thick, unenergized cellular membrane that essentially protects them from absorbing many drugs.
Normal cells have no such protection.
Conversely, cancer cells have no way to normalize their internal pH, where normal cells are relatively unaffected by high concentrations of alkalizing minerals. However cancer cells take up primarily
two elements: glucose and potassium.
In practical application, then, it is necessary to find a way to guide alkalizing elements - such as cesium, germanium or rubidium - into cancer cells, without impacting normal cells. It turns out this
can be done using a transport agent that penetrates the bone/blood barriers, then relying on the normal uptake of alkalizing elements that follow the potassium pathway. Cancer cells appear to have preferential uptake of cesium chloride in particular,
but also take up germanium, rubidium, selenium, etc. all through the potassium pathway.
There is a compound that is frequently applied to the skin by arthritis sufferers for relief of inflammation, used in brain surgery to relieve intracranial pressure
and topically used in sports medicine and veterinary medicine,[xii] also for reducing inflammation. This compound is called DMSO and
it is formed in the slurry created from soaking wood chips in water that is a bi-product of the paper making industry.
Folklore has it that workers in the paper making industry were observed to have their hands in water continuously, but they
never developed arthritis and had rapidly healing skin and strong nails. Experimentation with DMSO as a medical treatment began in the 1800's and continues to the present day. DMSO is medically approved in the United States only for the treatment
of interstitial cystitis, a type of inflammation of the bladder.[xiii]
The reason DMSO is so interesting to cancer patients is that, in
addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, it is a "carrier agent." It penetrates the brain/blood barrier and carries with it whatever drug or mineral is mixed with.
There is now some interest in the cancer industry in potentially using DMSO
to carry chemotherapeutic agents into cancer cells and get beyond their protective membrane. However, for the purposes of changing the alkalinity of cancer cells using cesium chloride, germanium, rubidium and other alkalizing minerals, DMSO and its ingestible
form, MSM, are an effective medium. Essentially these agents carry the minerals into all areas of the body including the brain, organs and bone marrow, where they can be used with other nutrients in ordinary cellular metabolism.
applied and ingested alkaline minerals to change cancer cell pH is not a new idea. Controlled experiments and the personal use of this method have been ongoing since the mid-1900s. However, it is important to note that the only FDA approved
clinical trial did not have outstanding results.[xiv] About 50% of the participants died – though if you read the study results in
detail you will discover that they had been pronounced terminal before the trial began and some of them never even took one treatment. Others had side effects ranging from leg cramps to heart arrhythmia. A careful read will lead you to believe
that perhaps they were given too strong a dose in too short a period of time.[xv]
From this research and subsequent studies, it is now
understood that alkaline minerals look to normal cells and to cancer cells like potassium. All cells require potassium to function. The reason cancer cells take up these alkaline minerals is their resemblance to potassium.
however, these minerals cannot take the place of potassium in cellular metabolism. While substituting alkaline minerals for potassium creates exactly the desired result in cancer cells – increased alkalinity - when normal cells replace potassium
with other minerals over the long term the consequences can be quite serious as it causes electrolyte imbalance, manifested as heart arrhythmia and leg cramps.[xvi]
The remedy to this condition of electrolyte imbalance, caused by replacement of potassium in healthy cells with other alkaline minerals during pH therapy, is simple in practical application. Alkaline minerals are ingested or applied to the skin only
during the day. Then before sleep, the user must take potassium chloride supplementation along with other electrolytes such as magnesium and calcium if needed. Monitoring of potassium blood levels every two weeks by a doctor is critical if a cancer
patient decides to incorporate alkaline therapy into their cancer regime.
When properly balanced, the side effects of using alkaline minerals are greatly if not completely remediated by electrolyte rebalancing. Despite the "fear,
fire, foe" tone of Mssrs. Wiens et al in the article cited above[xvii] there is no risk of dying of a heart attack (or leg cramp), unless
the patient ignores the proper method using alkaline minerals and is not working in consultation with an experienced specialist. A caution: electrolyte rebalancing cannot be properly implemented by casual methods such as drinking sports
drinks, particularly since commercial products are generally full of sugar and artificial substances. Electrolyte rebalancing must be carefully applied using specific doses of supplements, based on your personal blood composition, in consultation with
a nutrition expert or endocrinologist.
My personal experience with pH therapy has been nothing short of spectacular. I have seen stage four, terminal cancer patients recover using alkalizing minerals. There are patients who report untreatable
cancers, such as nasal or fully metastasized breast cancers, which after a very persistent course of tiny doses over several years, eventually disappeared altogether. Patients who have never had chemotherapy or radiation often experience rapid remission
after changing to an alkaline diet and incorporating the use of alkaline minerals into their regime.
However pH therapy using alkaline minerals requires quite a bit of knowledge (do your homework!) and is greatly enhanced with the support of a
mineral provider or cancer coach who has the experience to guide you through the process. Many mineral providers sell minerals, but do not have the ability to assist the users. Therefore, it is critical to seek a mineral provider who can provide
references to extensive information and is available to help you work through the rough spots – and there will be some!
It is my direct personal experience that cancer can be controlled using alkaline minerals. There are thousands of people
who have had similar positive experiences. Does it work for everyone? No. However if high pH therapy is properly applied, it works for a very respectable percentage of cancer sufferers – estimated at upwards of an 80% response rate
by providers. Significant when compared to traditional therapies.
This finding is why I started The Cancer Alternative Foundation - to help cancer patients feel comfortable using effective, natural therapies like pH therapy
as part of their overall treatment strategy. The Foundation simply researches and vets the claims of various alternative offerings for cancer –
and there are more than 400! To date, we have concluded that high pH therapy is one of the most effective alternatives, particularly for later stage cancers.
However alkaline therapy outcomes (as well as those for other sound alternatives) have
yet to be documented in a systematic way, such that the medical community could reliably understand the positive impact that incorporating it into cancer treatment could make to hundreds of thousands of cancer sufferers. Collecting outcomes is
a current project at The Cancer Alternative Foundation and should prove invaluable to cancer patients and their doctors and care givers alike.[xviii]
If nothing else, it is my contention that alkaline therapy could be used in a supporting role to conventional treatment, which will only improve the long-term outcome for patients. It is my hope that this promising and effective natural approach to
cancer becomes more accepted by mainstream cancer care providers - as well as those enlightened individuals seeking a natural alternative, who are willing to close their eyes and jump.
An alkaline approach to cancer can only help them to enjoy
their future – as in having one!
[ix]Cancer: The Mechanism Involved and a High pH Therapy, 1978 papers of A. Keith Brewer, Ph.D. & co-authors, Copyright
A. Keith Brewer Foundation, 325 N. Central Ave., Richland Center, Wis, 53581.
[x] Griffin, G. Edward, World Without Cancer:
The Story of Vitamin B17, American Media, Westlake, CA 1974
[xi] Fatma Akinci Yildirim and M. Atilla Askin: Variability of
amygdalin content in seeds of sweet and bitter apricot cultivars in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(39), pp. 6522-6524, 27 September, 2010; Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB; DOI:
10.5897/AJB10.884; 600 mg. of bitter apricot seeds contain up to 1.8 mg of cyanide, where the sweet kernels contain up to .9 mg. of cyanide.
CreditPhoto illustration by Cristiana Couceiro. Source photograph from Getty Images and Wikimedia Commons.
An Old Idea, Revived: Starve Cancer to Death
the early 20th century, the German biochemist Otto Warburg believed that tumors could be treated by disrupting their source of energy. His idea was dismissed for decades — until now.
By SAM APPLEMAY 12, 2016
The story of modern cancer research begins, somewhat improbably, with the sea urchin. In the first decade of the 20th century, the German biologist Theodor Boveri discovered that if he fertilized sea-urchin eggs with two sperm rather than one, some of the
cells would end up with the wrong number of chromosomes and fail to develop properly. It was the era before modern genetics, but Boveri was aware that cancer cells, like the deformed sea urchin cells, had abnormal chromosomes; whatever caused cancer, he surmised,
had something to do with chromosomes.
Today Boveri is celebrated for discovering the origins of cancer, but another German scientist, Otto Warburg, was studying sea-urchin eggs around the same time as Boveri. His research, too, was hailed as a major
breakthrough in our understanding of cancer. But in the following decades, Warburg’s discovery would largely disappear from the cancer narrative, his contributions considered so negligible that they were left out of textbooks altogether.
Boveri, Warburg wasn’t interested in the chromosomes of sea-urchin eggs. Rather, Warburg was focused on energy, specifically on how the eggs fueled their growth. By the time Warburg turned his attention from sea-urchin cells to the cells of a rat tumor,
in 1923, he knew that sea-urchin eggs increased their oxygen consumption significantly as they grew, so he expected to see a similar need for extra oxygen in the rat tumor. Instead, the cancer cells fueled their growth by swallowing up enormous amounts of
glucose (blood sugar) and breaking it down without oxygen. The result made no sense. Oxygen-fueled reactions are a much more efficient way of turning food into energy, and there was plenty of oxygen available for the cancer cells to use. But when Warburg tested
additional tumors, including ones from humans, he saw the same effect every time. The cancer cells were ravenous for glucose.
Warburg’s discovery, later named the Warburg effect, is estimated to occur in up to 80 percent of cancers. It is so fundamental
to most cancers that a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which has emerged as an important tool in the staging and diagnosis of cancer, works simply by revealing the places in the body where cells are consuming extra glucose. In many cases, the more
glucose a tumor consumes, the worse a patient’s prognosis.
In the years following his breakthrough, Warburg became convinced that the Warburg effect occurs because cells are unable to use oxygen properly and that this damaged respiration is, in
effect, the starting point of cancer. Well into the 1950s, this theory — which Warburg believed in until his death in 1970 but never proved — remained an important subject of debate within the field. And then, more quickly than anyone could have
anticipated, the debate ended. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick pieced together the structure of the DNA molecule and set the stage for the triumph of molecular biology’s gene-centered approach to cancer. In the following decades, scientists came
to regard cancer as a disease governed by mutated genes, which drive cells into a state of relentless division and proliferation. The metabolic catalysts that Warburg spent his career analyzing began to be referred to as “housekeeping enzymes”
— necessary to keep a cell going but largely irrelevant to the deeper story of cancer.
“It was a stampede,” says Thomas Seyfried, a biologist at Boston College, of the move to molecular biology. “Warburg was dropped like a hot
potato.” There was every reason to think that Warburg would remain at best a footnote in the history of cancer research. (As Dominic D’Agostino, an associate professor at the University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, told me, “The
book that my students have to use for their cancer biology course has no mention of cancer metabolism.”) But over the past decade, and the past five years in particular, something unexpected happened: Those housekeeping enzymes have again become one
of the most promising areas of cancer research. Scientists now wonder if metabolism could prove to be the long-sought “Achilles’ heel” of cancer, a common weak point in a disease that manifests itself in so many different forms.
are typically many mutations in a single cancer. But there are a limited number of ways that the body can produce energy and support rapid growth. Cancer cells rely on these fuels in a way that healthy cells don’t. The hope of scientists at the forefront
of the Warburg revival is that they will be able to slow — or even stop — tumors by disrupting one or more of the many chemical reactions a cell uses to proliferate, and, in the process, starve cancer cells of the nutrients they desperately need
Even James Watson, one of the fathers of molecular biology, is convinced that targeting metabolism is a more promising avenue in current cancer research than gene-centered approaches. At his office at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Long
Island, Watson, 88, sat beneath one of the original sketches of the DNA molecule and told me that locating the genes that cause cancer has been “remarkably unhelpful” — the belief that sequencing your DNA is going to extend your life “a
cruel illusion.” If he were going into cancer research today, Watson said, he would study biochemistry rather than molecular biology.
“I never thought, until about two months ago, I’d ever have to learn the Krebs cycle,” he said,
referring to the reactions, familiar to most high-school biology students, by which a cell powers itself. “Now I realize I have to.”
Born in 1883 into the illustrious Warburg family, Otto Warburg was raised to be a
science prodigy. His father, Emil, was one of Germany’s leading physicists, and many of the world’s greatest physicists and chemists, including Albert Einstein and Max Planck, were friends of the family. (When Warburg enlisted in the military during
World War I, Einstein sent him a letter urging him to come home for the sake of science.) Those men had explained the mysteries of the universe with a handful of fundamental laws, and the young Warburg came to believe he could bring that same elegant simplicity
and clarity to the workings of life. Long before his death, Warburg was considered perhaps the greatest biochemist of the 20th century, a man whose research was vital to our understanding not only of cancer but also of respiration and photosynthesis. In 1931
he won the Nobel Prize for his work on respiration, and he was considered for the award on two other occasions — each time for a different discovery. Records indicate that he would have won in 1944, had the Nazis not forbidden the acceptance of the Nobel
by German citizens.
That Warburg was able to live in Germany and continue his research throughout World War II, despite having Jewish ancestry and most likely being gay, speaks to the German obsession with cancer in the first half of the 20th century.
At the time, cancer was more prevalent in Germany than in almost any other nation. According to the Stanford historian Robert Proctor, by the 1920s Germany’s escalating cancer rates had become a “major scandal.” A number of top Nazis, including
Hitler, are believed to have harbored a particular dread of the disease; Hitler and Joseph Goebbels took the time to discuss new advances in cancer research in the hours leading up to the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. Whether Hitler was personally aware
of Warburg’s research is unknown, but one of Warburg’s former colleagues wrote that several sources told him that “Hitler’s entourage” became convinced that “Warburg was the only scientist who offered a serious hope of producing
a cure for cancer one day.”
Although many Jewish scientists fled Germany during the 1930s, Warburg chose to remain. According to his biographer, the Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Hans Krebs, who worked in Warburg’s lab, “science was
the dominant emotion” of Warburg’s adult life, “virtually subjugating all other emotions.” In Krebs’s telling, Warburg spent years building a small team of specially trained technicians who knew how to run his experiments, and
he feared that his mission to defeat cancer would be set back significantly if he had to start over. But after the war, Warburg fired all the technicians, suspecting that they had reported his criticisms of the Third Reich to the Gestapo. Warburg’s reckless
decision to stay in Nazi Germany most likely came down to his astonishing ego. (Upon learning he had won the Nobel Prize, Warburg’s response was, “It’s high time.”)
“Modesty was not a virtue of Otto Warburg,” says
George Klein, a 90-year-old cancer researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. As a young man, Klein was asked to send cancer cells to Warburg’s lab. A number of years later, Klein’s boss approached Warburg for a recommendation on Klein’s
behalf. “George Klein has made a very important contribution to cancer research,” Warburg wrote. “He has sent me the cells with which I have solved the cancer problem.” Klein also recalls the lecture Warburg gave in Stockholm in 1950
at the 50th anniversary of the Nobel Prize. Warburg drew four diagrams on a blackboard explaining the Warburg effect, and then told the members of the audience that they represented all that they needed to know about the biochemistry of cancer.
was so monumentally stubborn that he refused to use the word “mitochondria,” even after it had been widely accepted as the name for the tiny structures that power cells. Instead Warburg persisted in calling them “grana,” the term he
came up with when he identified those structures as the site of cellular respiration. Few things would have been more upsetting to him than the thought of Nazi thugs chasing him out of the beautiful Berlin institute, modeled after a country manor and built
specifically for him. After the war, the Russians approached Warburg and offered to erect a new institute in Moscow. Klein recalls that Warburg told them with great pride that both Hitler and Stalin had failed to move him. As Warburg explained to his sister:
“Ich war vor Hitler da” — “I was here before Hitler.”
Imagine two engines, the one being driven by complete and the other by incomplete combustion of coal,” Warburg wrote in 1956, responding
to a criticism of his hypothesis that cancer is a problem of energy. “A man who knows nothing at all about engines, their structure and their purpose may discover the difference. He may, for example, smell it.”
The “complete combustion,”
in Warburg’s analogy, is respiration. The “incomplete combustion,” turning nutrients into energy without oxygen, is known as fermentation. Fermentation provides a useful backup when oxygen can’t reach cells quickly enough to keep up
with demand. (Our muscle cells turn to fermentation during intense exercise.) Warburg thought that defects prevent cancer cells from being able to use respiration, but scientists now widely agree that this is wrong. A growing tumor can be thought of as a construction
site, and as today’s researchers explain it, the Warburg effect opens the gates for more and more trucks to deliver building materials (in the form of glucose molecules) to make “daughter” cells.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
If this theory can explain the “why” of the Warburg effect, it still leaves the more pressing question of what, exactly, sets a cell on the path to the Warburg effect and cancer. Scientists
at several of the nation’s top cancer hospitals have spearheaded the Warburg revival, in hopes of finding the answer. These researchers, typically molecular biologists by training, have turned to metabolism and the Warburg effect because their own research
led each of them to the same conclusion: A number of the cancer-causing genes that have long been known for their role in cell division also regulate cells’ consumption of nutrients.
Craig Thompson, the president and chief executive of the Memorial
Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, has been among the most outspoken proponents of this renewed focus on metabolism. In Thompson’s analogy, the Warburg effect can be thought of as a social failure: a breakdown of the nutrient-sharing agreement that single-celled
organisms signed when they joined forces to become multicellular organisms. His research showed that cells need to receive instructions from other cells to eat, just as they require instructions from other cells to divide. Thompson hypothesized that if he
could identify the mutations that lead a cell to eat more glucose than it should, it would go a long way toward explaining how the Warburg effect and cancer begin. But Thompson’s search for those mutations didn’t lead to an entirely new discovery.
Instead, it led him to AKT, a gene already well known to molecular biologists for its role in promoting cell division. Thompson now believes AKT plays an even more fundamental role in metabolism.
The protein created by AKT is part of a chain of signaling
proteins that is mutated in up to 80 percent of all cancers. Thompson says that once these proteins go into overdrive, a cell no longer worries about signals from other cells to eat; it instead stuffs itself with glucose. Thompson discovered he could induce
the “full Warburg effect” simply by placing an activated AKT protein into a normal cell. When that happens, Thompson says, the cells begin to do what every single-celled organism will do in the presence of food: eat as much as it can and make as
many copies of itself as possible. When Thompson presents his research to high-school students, he shows them a slide of mold spreading across a piece of bread. The slide’s heading — “Everyone’s first cancer experiment” —
recalls Warburg’s observation that cancer cells will carry out fermentation at almost the same rate of wildly growing yeasts.
Just as Thompson has redefined the role of AKT, Chi Van Dang, director of the Abramson Cancer Center at the University
of Pennsylvania, has helped lead the cancer world to an appreciation of how one widely studied gene can profoundly influence a tumor’s metabolism. In 1997, Dang became one of the first scientists to connect molecular biology to the science of cellular
metabolism when he demonstrated that MYC — a so-called regulator gene well known for its role in cell proliferation — directly targets an enzyme that can turn on the Warburg effect. Dang recalls that other researchers were skeptical of his interest
in a housekeeping enzyme, but he stuck with it because he came to appreciate something critical: Cancer cells can’t stop eating.
Unlike healthy cells, growing cancer cells are missing the internal feedback loops that are designed to conserve resources
when food isn’t available. They’re “addicted to nutrients,” Dang says; when they can’t consume enough, they begin to die. The addiction to nutrients explains why changes to metabolic pathways are so common and tend to arise first
as a cell progresses toward cancer: It’s not that other types of alterations can’t arise first, but rather that, when they do, the incipient tumors lack the access to the nutrients they need to grow. Dang uses the analogy of a work crew trying
to put up a building. “If you don’t have enough cement, and you try to put a lot of bricks together, you’re going to collapse,” he says.
Warburg’s Workshop: The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cell
Physiology (now part of the Max Planck Society) in Berlin, 1931.CreditSource photograph from archives of the Max Planck Society, Berlin.
Metabolism-centered therapies have produced some tantalizing successes. Agios Pharmaceuticals, a company co-founded
by Thompson, is now testing a drug that treats cases of acute myelogenous leukemia that have been resistant to other therapies by inhibiting the mutated versions of the metabolic enzyme IDH 2. In clinical trials of the Agios drug, nearly 40 percent of patients
who carry these mutations are experiencing at least partial remissions.
Researchers working in a lab run by Peter Pedersen, a professor of biochemistry at Johns Hopkins, discovered that a compound known as 3-bromopyruvate can block energy production
in cancer cells and, at least in rats and rabbits, wipe out advanced liver cancer. (Trials of the drug have yet to begin.) At Penn, Dang and his colleagues are now trying to block multiple metabolic pathways at the same time. In mice, this two-pronged approach
has been able to shrink some tumors without debilitating side effects. Dang says the hope is not necessarily to find a cure but rather to keep cancer at bay in a “smoldering quiet state,” much as patients treat their hypertension.
too, appreciated that a tumor’s dependence upon a steady flow of nutrients might eventually prove to be its fatal weakness. Long after his initial discovery of the Warburg effect, he continued to research the enzymes involved in fermentation and to explore
the possibility of blocking the process in cancer cells. The challenge Warburg faced then is the same one that metabolism researchers face today: Cancer is an incredibly persistent foe. Blocking one metabolic pathway has been shown to slow down and even stop
tumor growth in some cases, but tumors tend to find another way. “You block glucose, they use glutamine,” Dang says, in reference to another primary fuel used by cancers. “You block glucose and glutamine, they might be able to use fatty acids.
We don’t know yet.”
Given Warburg’s own story of historical neglect, it’s fitting that what may turn out to be one of the most promising cancer metabolism drugs has been sitting in plain sight for decades. That drug, metformin,
is already widely prescribed to decrease the glucose in the blood of diabetics (76.9 million metformin prescriptions were filled in the United States in 2014). In the years ahead, it’s likely to be used to treat — or at least to prevent —
some cancers. Because metformin can influence a number of metabolic pathways, the precise mechanism by which it achieves its anticancer effects remains a source of debate. But the results of numerous epidemiological studies have been striking. Diabetics taking
metformin seem to be significantly less likely to develop cancer than diabetics who don’t — and significantly less likely to die from the disease when they do.
Near the end of his life, Warburg grew obsessed with his diet. He believed that
most cancer was preventable and thought that chemicals added to food and used in agriculture could cause tumors by interfering with respiration. He stopped eating bread unless it was baked in his own home. He would drink milk only if it came from a special
herd of cows, and used a centrifuge at his lab to make his cream and butter.
Warburg’s personal diet is unlikely to become a path to prevention. But the Warburg revival has allowed researchers to develop a hypothesis for how the diets that are
linked to our obesity and diabetes epidemics — specifically, sugar-heavy diets that can result in permanently elevated levels of the hormone insulin — may also be driving cells to the Warburg effect and cancer.
The insulin hypothesis can
be traced to the research of Lewis Cantley, the director of the Meyer Cancer Center at Weill Cornell Medical College. In the 1980s, Cantley discovered how insulin, which is released by the pancreas and tells cells to take up glucose, influences what happens
inside a cell. Cantley now refers to insulin and a closely related hormone, IGF-1 (insulinlike growth factor 1), as “the champion” activators of metabolic proteins linked to cancer. He’s beginning to see evidence, he says, that in some cases,
“it really is insulin itself that’s getting the tumor started.” One way to think about the Warburg effect, says Cantley, is as the insulin, or IGF-1, signaling pathway “gone awry — it’s cells behaving as though insulin were
telling it to take up glucose all the time and to grow.” Cantley, who avoids eating sugar as much as he can, is currently studying the effects of diet on mice that have the mutations that are commonly found in colorectal and other cancers. He says that
the effects of a sugary diet on colorectal, breast and other cancer models “looks very impressive” and “rather scary.”
Elevated insulin is also strongly associated with obesity, which is expected soon to overtake smoking as the
leading cause of preventable cancer. Cancers linked to obesity and diabetes have more receptors for insulin and IGF-1, and people with defective IGF-1 receptors appear to be nearly immune to cancer. Retrospective studies, which look back at patient histories,
suggest that many people who develop colorectal, pancreatic or breast cancer have elevated insulin levels before diagnosis. It’s perhaps not entirely surprising, then, that when researchers want to grow breast-cancer cells in the lab, they add insulin
to the tissue culture. When they remove the insulin, the cancer cells die.
“I think there’s no doubt that insulin is pro-cancer,” Watson says, with respect to the link between obesity, diabetes and cancer. “It’s as good
a hypothesis as we have now.” Watson takes metformin for cancer prevention; among its many effects, metformin works to lower insulin levels. Not every cancer researcher, however, is convinced of the role of insulin and IGF-1 in cancer. Robert Weinberg,
a researcher at M.I.T.’s Whitehead Institute who pioneered the discovery of cancer-causing genes in the ’80s, has remained somewhat cool to certain aspects of the cancer-metabolism revival. Weinberg says that there isn’t yet enough evidence
to know whether the levels of insulin and IGF-1 present in obese people are sufficient to trigger the Warburg effect. “It’s a hypothesis,” Weinberg says. “I don’t know if it’s right or wrong.”
lifetime, insulin’s effects on metabolic pathways were even less well understood. But given his ego, it’s highly unlikely that he would have considered the possibility that anything other than damaged respiration could cause cancer. He died sure
that he was right about the disease. Warburg framed a quote from Max Planck and hung it above his desk: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die.”
Sam Apple is the author of the memoir “American Parent” and teaches journalism at the University of Pennsylvania.
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A version of this article appears in print on May 15, 2016, on Page MM64 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Starving the Beast.
O KRIJE ISTINU OD SVETA: Naš
lekar iz Švedske otkriva velike tajne do kojih je došao istraživanjem!
Gost na YouTube kanalu "Nauka i Misterije Balkan" bio je DR. Jasmin Topalović, medicinski istraživač
Čovek koji živi u Švedskoj i koji je tamo rođen, ali izuzetno dobro govori srpski jezik. Preporučujemo Vam da pogledate celu emisiju i saznate više o brojnim zanimljivim temama. Emisiju je vodio novinar Aleksandar
Kao i uvek, svaka
reč vašeg cenjenog gosta kojeg visoko poštujem je iskrena i istinita. Ovakvi ljudi su bili potrebni uvek a naročito sada u ovo teško i složeno vreme
puno prevara u svim oblastima života.Dr. Jasminu veliko hvala za sve što radi u cilju pomaganja ljudima i vraćanja nade u ozdravljenje.
Odslusala sam cijeli intervju sa gospodinom Topalovicem, mnogo mi se svidio ali sam se na kraju ipak razocarala
jer sam se nadala bar nekom savjetu, bar nekom recepticu, pored ostalih problema koje imam najvise me interesuje gojaznost i dijabetes. Ocekivala sam bar neki konkretni savjet ili objasnjenje za bilo koji zdravstveni problem, medjutim na kraju krajeva nista
od toga. da je barem ostavio broj tel. za kontakt kako bi svi oni koji su zainteresovani mogli pitati sta ih interesuje.
DrJasminTopalović OVO JE UDAR NA ZDRAV RAZUM - Postali smo taoci globalistički izmišljotina,
vladari iz senke žele da nam nametnu to zlo! Jasmin je u ovoj emisiji pokazao više primera brzog i efikastnog poboljšanja zdravlja koji su još neki primeri savršenstva Metoda Funtastiq Života,
koji se širi oko sveta i pomaže ljudima da žive jedan funtastiq život, gde god se nalaze.
emisija Dr FUNTASTIQ, JasminTopalović na Youtube kanalu - Nauka i Misterije Balkan Vrlo jaka emisija gde je Dr FUNTASTIQ, JasminTopalović, odkrijo velike tajne zdravlja, kao pravu istinu visokog pritiska, kolesterola, stresa i mnogo više. Gledajte ovde..... Svedočanstva o FuntastiqLife metodu
Gost na YouTube kanalu "Nauka i Misterije Balkan" bio je Jasmin Topalović, medicinski istraživač i nutricionista. Čovek koji živi u Švedskoj i koji je tamo rođen, ali izuzetno dobro govori srpski jezik. ... SAD
U 21 UŽIVO - DISKUSIJA NA TWITTER SPEJSU - SLOBODA I ZDRAVLJE ČOVEKA Drži Dr Funtastiq Jasmin Topalović i Bojan Ljepoja ...
THIS BELLOW, IS JUST A COMPILATION OF INFORMATION AS THEY COME IN THE ETHER. BE HAPPY, HEALTHY, JOYFULL, AND HAVE A GRACE OF GOD/HOLLY SPIRIT IN YOU. GOOD LUCK!!! dR. VIS.
patients whose cancer has spread can now find out if immunotherapy will work for them before the treatment even begins, thanks to a world-first, Australian-developed calculator that predicts a patient's repsonse to the treatement.
There could soon be a new treatment option for women diagnosed with an
aggressive and difficult-to-treat form of breast cancer. Scientists at the Garvan Institute are beginning clinical trials with an experimental drug that's designed to make triple negative breast cancer more responsive to chemotherapy.